e 19th-century German philosopher Karl Marx, the founder and primary theorist of Marxism, viewed religion as "the soul of soulless conditions" or the " opium of the people ". Zum theoretischen Hintergrund der MARX´schen Lehre: 1. Instead, we can recognize that there are a variety of social influences upon religion, including economic and material realities of society. These two facts created a division of labor and separation of classes based on power and wealth. Marxists have tried valiantly to refute those critiques or revise Marx’s ideas to render them immune to the problems described above, but they haven’t entirely succeeded (although they certainly disagree—otherwise they wouldn’t still be Marxists). Für den Philosophen und Ökonomen Karl Marx ist die historische Entwicklung einer Gesellschaft immer eine Geschichte von Klassenkämpfen. Jesus advocated helping the poor, but the Christian church merged with the oppressive Roman state, taking part in the enslavement of people for centuries. Kritik an Marx. Im späten 18. As interesting and insightful as Marx’s analysis and critiques are, they are not without their problems—both historical and economic. The two were of like mind and worked exceptionally well together—Marx was the better philosopher while Engels was the better communicator. The confrontation between them is unavoidable because those classes are driven by historical forces beyond anyone’s control. Lernziele der Stunde. Austin Cline, a former regional director for the Council for Secular Humanism, writes and lectures extensively about atheism and agnosticism. In the Marxist–Leninist interpretation, all modern religions and churches are considered as "organs of bourgeois reaction" used for "the exploitation and the stupefaction of the working class". This has two flaws. Karl Marx war entgegen oft verbreiteter Meinung zwar nicht der Erfinder des Kommunismus, aber Begründer des Marxismus der wohl bekanntesten Form des Kommunismus. Hegel was a complicated philosopher, but it is possible to draw a rough outline for our purposes. In fact, religion is only dependent upon economics, nothing else—so much so that the actual religious doctrines are almost irrelevant. [35], During the Russian Civil War, Jews were seen as communist sympathizers and thousands were murdered in pogroms by the White Army. The Dalai Lama further stated that "[o]f all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. [14], The Soviet Union was an atheist state[15][16][17] in which religion was largely discouraged and at times heavily persecuted. A laborer might produce enough value to feed his family in two hours of work, but he keeps at the job for a full day—in Marx’s time, that might be 12 or 14 hours. Has it not preached in place of these, charity and poverty, celibacy and mortification of the flesh, monastic life and Mother Church? It would be bourgeois narrow-mindedness to forget that the yoke of religion that weighs upon mankind is merely a product and reflection of the economic yoke within society. [2], According to Howard Zinn, "[t]his helps us understand the mass appeal of the religious charlatans of the television screen, as well as the work of Liberation Theology in joining the soulfulness of religion to the energy of revolutionary movements in miserably poor countries". Economics, then, are what constitute the base of all of human life and history—generating division of labor, class struggle, and all the social institutions which are supposed to maintain the status quo. Inspired by Ludwig Feuerbach's "religion of humanity", it had some precedent in the French Revolution with the "cult of reason". Issue 123, Sabrina Petra Ramet, Ed., Religious Policy in the Soviet Union. Marx is not entirely without sympathy: people are in distress and religion does provide solace, just as people who are physically injured receive relief from opiate-based drugs. [13] However, importance was placed on secularism and non-violence towards the religious: But the campaign against the backwardness of the masses in this matter of religion, must be conducted with patience and considerateness, as well as with energy and perseverance. The people working in those systems—developing art, theology, philosophy, etc.—imagine that their ideas come from a desire to achieve truth or beauty, but that is not ultimately true. A number of Marxist–Leninist governments in the 20th century such as the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenin and the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong implemented rules introducing state atheism. Oppression of religious groups was nearly totally ended and relations between religious groups and the People's Republic of Kampuchea were much more neutral throughout its existence until the restoration of the monarchy a decade later. 1467-1488, Lucian N. Leustean. Karl Marx veränderte und verschärfte die Religionskritik von Ludwig Feuerbach (1806-1872). Denn der Mensch hängt an seinem Leben, und der Tot soll nicht das Ende sein müssen. By the same token, religion can, in turn, have an influence on society’s economic system. For Marx, economics are what constitute the base of all of human life and history, a source which generates division of labor, class struggle, and all the social institutions which are supposed to maintain the status quo. Religion kann von den einzelnen gebraucht werden als Beruhigung, Opium, als Flucht aus der Wirklichkeit. Although there is no universal agreement on the exact date when Christian communism was founded, many Christian communists assert that evidence from the Bible suggests that the first Christians, including the Apostles, created their own small communist society in the years following Jesus' death and resurrection. - Karl Heinrich Marx wurde am 05.05.1818 in Trier geboren, ursprünglich waren sowohl Vater als auch Mutter jüdischen Glaubens - Vater Heinrich Marx Jurist, konnte jedoch wegen seines jüdischen Glaubens die Praxis nicht weiterführen und konvertierte mit der Familie 1824 zum evangelischen Glaubenà prägend für Marx′ Verhältnis zur Religion The Christian Idea of the Messiah. The Christian and Muslim communities were among the most persecuted as well. This emphasis on action rather than mere philosophical musings is a crucial point in Marx’s program. Between Moscow and London: Romanian Orthodoxy and National Communism, 1960–1965. Examples include Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, an outspoken libertarian communist, Russian revolutionary and territorialist leader Isaac Steinberg and Rabbi Abraham Bik, an American communist activist. Constructing Communism in the Romanian People's Republic. The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. Marx abandoned the idea of an academic career. Journalism was to become a chief occupation of Marx for much of his life. Two important ideas which developed bear mentioning here: First, that economic realities are the determining factor for all human behavior; and second, that all of human history is that of class struggle between those who own things and those who do not own things but must instead work to survive. At the same time, Marx saw religion as a form of protest by the working classes against their … While critical of religion, Lenin also specifically made a point to not include it in Our Programme or his ideological goals, arguing: But under no circumstances ought we to fall into the error of posing the religious question in an abstract, idealistic fashion, as an "intellectual" question unconnected with the class struggle, as is not infrequently done by the radical-democrats from among the bourgeoisie. Diese dient nach Marx nur dazu, die Existenz des Menschen durch Träumereien und Trost im Jenseits erträglich zu machen und so das faktische Elend zu verlängern und zu legitimieren. State atheism in the Soviet Union was known as gosateizm. Im „Kommunistis… Other religions, which were practiced by a relatively small number of believers, included Buddhism and Shamanism. [25] Dissident priests were censured, arrested, deported, and/or defrocked, but the Orthodox Church as a whole acquiesced to the government's demands and received support from it. Atheist propaganda returned to a lesser extent during the Khrushchev government and continued in a less strict way during the Brezhnev years. Marx ist der Überzeugung, dass die Wirklichkeit des Menschen durch wirtschaftliche und soziale Faktoren geprägt ist. Universität. As the perceived threat of the "Godless communist" and materialism to the American way of life grew, "the choice between Americanism and Communism was vital, without room for compromise". The view is that communism was just Christianity in practice and Jesus as the first communist. Secularism Vs Secularization: What's the Difference? 1119-1139, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, 1978 Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Religious persecution in Communist Romania, Freedom of religion in Romania § Socialist Republic of Romania, House Committee on Un-American Activities, "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right", "Opium as Dialectics of Religion: Metaphor, Expression and Protest", "The full story: on Marxism and religion", "About the attitude of the working party toward the religion", Protest for Religious Rights in the USSR: Characteristics and Consequences, Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure, "IV.II. Unlike other Eastern Bloc states where clergy were forced to rely on donations or subsistence wages, Orthodox clergy in Romania were paid a salary equivalent to the average received by the general population, and received significant state subsidies for the reconstruction of churches destroyed in the war. According to Marx, religion can only be understood in relation to other social systems and the economic structures of society. After the failure of various revolutionary movements on the continent, Marx was forced to go to London in 1849. In reality, they are expressions of class interest and class conflict. He died of respiratory problems in London in 1883. Perhaps he was influenced in this matter by Hegel, who thought that Christianity was the highest form of religion and that whatever was said about that also automatically applied to “lesser” religions—but that isn’t true. Überall erschienen nun Sch… The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo. 3 (Jul., 2007), pp. Although it might profess valuable principles, it sides with the oppressors. [citation needed], In contrast with the brutal repression of the sangha undertaken in Cambodia, the Communist government of Laos has not sought to oppose or suppress Buddhism in Laos to any great degree, rather since the early days of the Pathet Lao communist officials have sought to use the influence and respect afforded to Buddhist clergy to achieve political goals while discouraging religious practices seen as detrimental to Marxist aims. Marx bezieht sich in seinen Ausführungen auf den Philosophen Feuerbac h, der Gott und die Religion als Werk des Menschen herausgestellt hatte. According to Marx, religion is one of those social institutions which are dependent upon the material and economic realities in a given society. berlin war nach hegels tod stark von ihm beeinflusst. This is not true. If the church were to be persecuted, it would win sympathy among the masses, for persecution would remind them of the almost forgotten days when there was an association between religion and the defence of national freedom; it would strengthen the antisemitic movement; and in general it would mobilize all the vestiges of an ideology which is already beginning to die out. "[6], There are those who view that the early Christian Church such as that one described in the Acts of the Apostles was an early form of communism and religious socialism. Religion is »the opium of the people« – this famous phrase, coined by Karl Marx in 1844, seems to summarize his critique of religion. Prior to its collapse in late 1991, official figures on religion in the Soviet Union were not available. To gather support from the masses during World War II, the Stalin government re-opened thousands of temples and extinguished the league of militant atheists. 491-521, Lucian N. Leustean. Religion: Opium des Volkes (Karl Marx) Religionen haben etwas Gemeinsames: Ihre Entstehung verdanken Sie dem Ende. In addition to being a theological matter, liberation theology was often tied to concrete political practice. All modern religions and churches, all and of every kind of religious organizations are always considered by Marxism as the organs of bourgeois reaction, used for the protection of the exploitation and the stupefaction of the working class.[11]. Second, the common experience is that the value of a produced object lies not with the labor put into it but in the subjective estimation of a potential purchaser. [36] On the other hand, some orthodox Jews, including a number of prominent religious figures, actively supported either anarchist or Marxist versions of communism. Marx places his emphasis on the concept of value, which can only be created by human labor, not machines. Although they agreed that the division between mind and matter was the fundamental philosophical issue, they argued that it was a matter which was fundamental and that ideas were simply expressions of material necessity. This is the context in which all human social institutions develop, including religion. All of this is made worse by capitalism which only increases the disparity between the wealthy classes and the labor classes. As Marx wrote, “The religious world is but the reflex of the real world.”. Learn Religions uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Before the 18th century, most answers were framed in purely theological and religious terms, assuming the truth of Christian revelations and proceeding from there. Those social institutions are a superstructure built upon the base of economics, totally dependent upon material and economic realities but nothing else. 'Reading 'Opium of the People': Expression, Protest and the Dialectics of Religion'. Unterrichtsschritte. Marxist sociology and Marxist economics have no connection to religious issues and make no assertions about such things. The majority of the Islamic faithful were Sunni (with a notable Shia minority, mainly in Azerbaijan), while Judaism also had many followers. Even if Weber is wrong, we see that one can argue just the opposite of Marx with clear historical evidence. First, it is irrational—religion is a delusion and worship of appearances that avoids recognizing underlying reality. Dass Marx Religion nur in Zusammenhängen von Machtverhältnissen denken konnte, zeigt auch sein „Kommunistisches Manifest“ (1848). Christians belonged to various churches: Orthodox, which had the largest number of followers; Catholic; and Baptist and other Protestant denominations. Marx und Engels Zusammenfassung. Die industrielle Revolution griff bald auf das europäische Festland über und verwandelte auch dort Gesellschaft und Lebensverhältnisse total: Die wenigen Fabrikbesitzer wurden immer reicher die große Masse der Arbeiter wurde immer ärmer und verelendete immer mehr. Consisting of a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socioeconomic analyses, liberation theology stresses social concern for the poor and advocates for liberation for oppressed peoples. Kurze Zusammenfassung über im Kurs besprochene Punkte. This is a functionalist interpretation of religion: understanding religion is dependent upon what social purpose religion itself serves, not the content of its beliefs. Many of those who refused were killed. In 1841 the government similarly forbade the young Professor Bruno Bauer to lecture at Bonn. Engels was also important to Marx in a financial sense—poverty weighed heavily on Marx and his family; had it not been for Engels’ constant and selfless financial aid, Marx would not only have been unable to complete most of his major works but might have succumbed to hunger and malnutrition. Im „Kapital“ Von Marx gehört Religion in die Logik der verkehrten kapitalistischen Welt. Kurs. For this reason I still think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhist". Thus, his analysis of religion becomes difficult to defend or apply, at least in the simplistic form he describes. Because of these problems, it would not be appropriate to accept Marx’s ideas uncritically. Whatever one’s conclusion about the accuracy or validity of Marx’s ideas on religion, we should recognize that he provided an invaluable service by forcing people to take a hard look at the social web in which religion always occurs. Has not Christianity declaimed against private property, against marriage, against the State? The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. Although he certainly has some important things to say about the nature of religion, he can’t be accepted as the last word on the subject. [28], In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote: "Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a Socialist tinge. kommt nach berlin. Sie sind Dinge, die Bedürfnisse befriedigen können, entweder direkt (z. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. "[43], Because of the perceived atheistic nature of communism, some have accused communism of persecuting religion. But what does it mean? [39], Buddhism has been said to be compatible with communism given that both can be interpreted as atheistic and arguably share some similarities regarding their views of the world of nature and the relationship between matter and mind. Marx actually said very little about religion directly; in all of his writings, he hardly ever addresses religion in a systematic fashion, even though he touches on it frequently in books, speeches, and pamphlets. Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower. 52, No. Economic realities prevent them from finding true happiness in this life, so religion tells them this is OK because they will find true happiness in the next life. It has no independent history but is instead the creature of productive forces. Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, and the least funny of the Marxes. Karl Marx als Student 1836 -- Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons. Knappe Übersicht von Marx' Kerngedanken zur Kritik der Religion als Tafelbild In seiner Schrift “Zur Kritik der Hegel’schen Rechts-Philosophie”, Paris 1844, diffamiert Karl Marx die Religion als Opium des Volkes.In Anknüpfung an Feuerbach kritisiert er die Religion als Werk des (durch die verkehrte Gesellschaft) entfremdeten Menschen. 303-329, Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu. Jesus as a Rebel. Nonetheless, Lenin allowed Christians and other religious people in the Bolshevik Party. [44] In addition, another criticism is that communism is in itself a religion. er um die richtige The People's Mujahedin of Iran, an exiled political party which opposes the Islamic Republic, once advocated communist ideals, but has since abandoned them. But throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, a more “naturalistic” approach developed. To understand Marx’s critiques of religion and economic theories, it is important to understand a little bit about where he came from, his philosophical background, and how he arrived at some of his beliefs about culture and society. Marx and Bruno Bauer were invited to be the chief contributors, and in October 1842 Marx became editor-in-chief and moved from Bonn to Cologne. Orthodoxy and State, 1948–49. The owner of the factory did nothing to earn this, but exploits it nevertheless and keeps the difference as profit.